Searches done on the National Library of Medicine’s database retrieved the following articles:


Singh AR, Kaur A, Anand NK, Singh JR. Pyknodysostosis: visceral manifestations and simian crease. Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:453-5.
Pyknodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive osteosclerosing skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the CTSK gene situated at 1q21 that codes for cathepsin K - a lysosomal cysteine protease. Mutations in this gene affect the metabolism of skeletal system. This causes problems in bone resorption and remodelling and craniofacial abnormalities. In this article we report a case of 12 year old female from Punjab with pyknodysostosis having hepatosplenomegaly and simian crease.


Ravindranath R, Shubha R, Nagesh HV, et al. Dermatoglyphics in rheumatoid arthritis. Indian J Med Sci 2003;57:437-441.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been referred to Division of Human Genetics for counselling. Qualitative dermatoglyphics comprising of finger print pattern, interdigital pattern, hypothenar pattern and palmar crease were studied on 26 female and 11 male rheumatoid arthritis patients. Comparison between patient male and control male; and patient female and control female has been done. 'Chi' square test was performed. In male patients, with hands together, arches were increased, loops/ whorls were decreased. Partial Simian crease was significantly increased. In the right hand, patterns were increased in the 3rd interdigital area. On the other hand, in female patients there was a significant increase in whorls and decrease in loops on the first finger on both the hands, increase in arches on the 3rd finger; both arches and whorls on the 4th finger of left hand. Present study has emphasized that dermatoglyphics could be applied as a diagnostic tool to patients with rheumatoid arthritis.


Bock D, Rummele P, Friedrich M, Wolff JE. Multifocal desmoplastic astrocytoma, frontal lobe dysplasia, and simian crease. J Pediatr 2002;14:445.
No abstract available.


Phadke S, Sharma A, Agarwal SS. Freeman Sheldon syndrome with bilateral simian crease and malpositioned second toes. Indian Pediatr 1993;30:91-3.
No abstract available.


Sherer DM, Abramowicz JS. Prenatal sonographic detection of simian crease at 15 weeks gestation. J Ultrasound Med 1991;10:298-9.
No abstract available.


Jeanty P. Prenatal detection of simian crease. J Ultrasound Med 1990;9:131-6.
We present the prenatal detection of a simian crease (transverse palmar line) in seven fetuses. Three fetuses had trisomy 21, four had normal chromosomes but another anomaly (meningomyelocele, thanatophoric dysplasia, achondroplasia). The technique used and normal anatomy are described.


Rignell A. Simian crease incidence and the correlation with thenar and hypothenar pattern types in Swedish patients with trisomy 21 (Down’s syndrome). Am J Phys Anthropol 1987;72:277-86.
In the present study the frequency of the simian crease among 57 Down patients is compared to the corresponding figures of related and unrelated individuals. A study of the correlation with the dermatoglyphic patterns of the thenar and hypothenar areas is presented, the palm print classification being carried out according to a Swedish method.


Gupta CM, Tutakne MA. An evaluation of palmar flexion creases and dermatoglyphics in leprosy. Indian J Lepr 1986;58:263-75
The palmar flexion creases and dermatoglyphics of 150 male leprosy patients (100 paucibacillary and 50 multibacillary leprosy) were compared with 50 matched controls. Among palmar dermatoglyphics a significantly high frequency (P less than 0.001) of palmar pattern in thenar/1st interdigital area was noticed on left palm of multibacillary leprosy patients. Slight increase in frequency of distal axial triradii (t' and t'') was also seen on palms of leprosy patients. No difference in values of atd angle and C-line types were observed between patients and controls. Among palmar flexion creases a significantly high frequency of Single Radial Base Crease (SRBC) and lower frequency of Double Radial Base Crease (DRBC) was noticed on palms of leprosy patients as compared to controls (P less than 0.001). The difference mainly exist on left palm. A significantly high frequency of Simian Crease was also observed on palms of multibacillary leprosy patients (P less than 0.001) and paucibacillary leprosy patients (P less than 0.05) as compared to controls.


Kamali MS. Simian crease polymorphism among fifteen Iranian endogamous groups. Anthropol Anz 1985;43:217-25.
In palm prints of 3266 individuals from 15 Iranian endogamous groups the palmar crease types were analysed using the simian crease classification proposed by Bhanu (1973). There is little evidence of differences between sexes or hands. The range of variations among the populations is considerable, not only in the pattern frequency, but also in the lateral symmetry. Comparisons with other populations show that the frequencies of the transitional and simian crease types tend to be low in Iranian populations.


Hernandez M Palmar creases in Spaniards. Anthropol Anz 1985;43:187-90
In a sample of Spanish people (403 males and 513 females) the palmar creases have been studied according to the method of Bali & Chaube (1971). Bimanual differences are not statistically significant, but there is a sexual dimorphism. Comparing the incidence of the open M type defined by Tillner there are no statistical differences as compared with male German series, though they are seen in female series. It is observed that the frequency of the simian crease is in accordance with the variability of European populations.


Borbolla L, Guerra D, Bacallao J. Dermatoglyphics in Cuban mongols. Acta Paediatr Acad Sci Hung 1980;21:107-21.
Finger and palm prints of 220 Cuban mongols, all trisomic 21, were statistically compared with those of a group of 400 normal Cuban individuals. The most important dermatoglyphic findings in the patients were: an excess of ulnar loops on the 2nd and 3rd fingers, and radial loops on the 4th and 5th fingers; a paucity of patterns in the thenar/I area; more hypothenar true patterns, specially ulnar loops, higher percentages of patterns in the II and III interdigital spaces with less true patterns in the IV interdigital space; distal position t” of the axial triradius and large atd angles of more than 70 degrees; high values of the main-line index; predominance of radial type of the C line and higher frequencies of type 11 of the D line. The simian crease, especially the complete variety, had more diagnostic value than the Sydney line. Parathenar patterns which did not seem to have been described previously in mongols, were significantly more frequent in the patients than in controls. The results are very similar to those observed in other countries and it seems that the peculiar dermatoglyphic pattern of patients with Down syndrome is not affected by ethnic influences.


Oorthuys AM, de Vaan GA, Behrendt H, et al. Palmar flexion creases in childhood neoplasia. Cancer 1979;43:749-59
About 90% of Caucasian individuals in the general population may observe two transverse palmar flexion creases when their fingers are slightly bent. A small minority may find in one hand a single transverse crease or the usual two creases, of which one seems to cut across the palm to the ulnar margin. Those unusual creases are called simian- or Sydney-creases, respectively. Normal healthy people hardly ever observe them in both hands. We observed those unusual creases, however, in more than 50% of children suffering from different type of malignant neoplasia, quite often in both hands. The difference between patients and controls of similar ages is highly significant. Among patient with childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia the variant creases were mostly of the Sydney type. They most frequently occurred in those patients in whom the disease had become manifest at an early age. Since fathers as well as mothers of the patients showed significantly higher frequencies of unusual creases, the phenomenon seems to be a familial one. A most singular effect is the striking incidence of those creases in younger siblings of the patients. With regard to crease variance our data are essentially similar for lymphoproliferative disorders (ALL and NHML) and embryonic malignant tumors. This might be the first indication of a common host factor in patients with ALL or embryonic tumors occurring in early childhood. We have postulated that this factor may be a regulatory one associated with cellular growth and differentiation in early fetal palmar pads as well as with cell-mediated immune response to early pediatric tumors. The observation of palmar flexion creases may prove to be rewarding in future studies of cellular defense mechanisms in young patients with neoplasia.


Tay JS. The genetics of palmar creases. A study in the inheritance of liability estimated from the incidence among relatives. Ann Hum Genet 1979;42:327-32
659 Chinese children and 613 first degree relatives were studied with regard to four variations in the palmar creases: the simian crease, the Sydney line, the radial border termination of the thenar crease, and the distal border termination of the distal crease. With the exception of the Sydney line, these palmar crease variations were found to occur with significantly increased frequency in the parents of the propositi compared with 400 controls, indicating the presence of genetic factors in their embryogenesis. If the polygenic hypothesis is accepted, the very high heritability of liability (100%) to the radial border termination of the thenar crease is a further demonstration of the importance of the genetic contribution. Variations in the palmar creases thus cannot be totally explained away by early flexional folding in the skin of the developing hand.


Wertelecki W. The simian and Sydney crease. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 1979;15:455-71.
No abstract available.


Tillner I, Majewski F. Furrows and dermal ridges of the hand in patients with alcohol embryopathy. Hum Genet 1978;42:307-14.
Palmar creases and dermal ridge patterns of 34 patients with alcohol embryopathy are compared with 470 healthy individuals. In alcohol embryopathy several typical deviations were noted. Palmar Creases. The interdigital part of the distal palmar crease is generally sharply bent, the proximal transverse crease is hypoplastic or missing, the thenar crease is commonly well marked. Simian creases and bridged palmar creases are more common in patients with alcohol embryopathy than in healthy individuals. Ridge Patterns of the Palm. The main line D coming from triradius d in patients with alcohol embryopathy mostly shows a low type of ending in the fourth interdigital area; in this area loops are twice as common as in healthy individuals. Patterns of the Fingertips. No deviations were noted in the distribution of whorls and loops, but virtually no arches were observed in patients with alcohol embryopathy. These anomalies suggest embryonic damage in the twelfth week of gestation.


Eswaraiah G, Bali RS. Palmar flexion creases and dermatoglyphics in leprosy patients. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1978;46:56-60.
Palmar configurations of 115 male and 48 female leprosy patients were compared with 536 males and 426 female normal individuals of the same population. The data was derived from Nekararu (weavers) castes of Karnataka State, India. Among flexion creases, the single radial base crease (SRBC) especially showed more association with leprosy in both male and female patients than their respective controls. Among dermatoglyphics, only C-line types are significantly different in male leprosy patients as compared to their controls. The female patients also showed more C-absent lines than the control group. The susceptibility to bacterial infection may be due to some biologic deficiency which warrants continued investigation on a broader and more intensive basis.


Dar H, Schmidt R, Nitowsky HM. Palmar crease variants and their clinical significance: a study of newborns at risk. Pediatr Res 1977;11:103-8
An analysis of palmar crease variants was carried out in a group of “at risk” newborns, without any evident congenital anomalies. This group consisted of 108 prematures, 74 infants who were small for gestational age, 62 newborns with history of gestational complications, and 46 newborns with a history of intrauterine methadone exposure. A system of classification was developed based on observations of 500 normal newborns as control subjects, 466 normal mothers, and 200 normal children. The palmar crease variants can be divided into four main groups, schematically presented as normal variants, simian crease and its variants, Sydney line and its variants, and another group of unusual variants which do not fit into the other groups. A study of these groups revealed that familial components, race, sex, and age are factors that can influence the expression of palmar crease patterns. There is an increased frequency of abnormal creases in each of the groups of “at risk” newborns. Moreover, there is an apparent association of interrupted transverse creases and intrauterine methadone exposure.


Babaian RA, Korenevskaia MI, Potapova SG, Tokarev IN. [Certain data on the study of persons with transverse palmar crease]. Zh Eksp Klin Med 1975;15:99-101. Russian. No abstract available.


Hook EB, Bonenfant R, Powers ML, et al. The human simian crease and its variants. A model for investigation of serious congenital malformation. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 1974;10:7-16. No abstract available.


Mehes K. Simian crease. Acta Paediatr Acad Sci Hung 1972;13:335-9. No abstract available.


Dar H, Carney FE Jr, Winter ST. Dermatoglyphics and the simian crease in infants of low birth weight. A pilot study. Acta Paediatr Scand 1971 Jul;60:479-81. No abstract available.


Johnson CF, Opitz E. The single palmar crease and its clinical significance in a child development clinic. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1971;10:392-403. No abstract available.


Dar H, Winter ST. A study of dermatoglyphics and the simian crease in familial deafness. Hum Hered 1970;20:493-506. No abstract available.


Jaworska M. Simian crease and congenital malformations. Acta Chir Plast 1969;11:117-23. No abstract available.


Davies PA. Sex and the single transverse palmar crease in newborn singletons. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1966;8:729-34. No abstract available.


Dermatoglyphics in Schizophrenia. Single transverse horizontal palmar crease: A genetic marker. By, Nagaraj Padma Nayak, 1997.